Originally Published Online

Understanding PD
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Living Well With PD
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Clinical Trials
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The research community has its own language and when you take part in a clinical study you may encounter terms that you are not familiar with. Here is a list of the more commonly used ones.

Adverse Event – Any negative change in a study participant’s condition that occurs during the study or shortly afterwards that may or may not be related to the intervention being investigated.

Adverse Drug Reaction – An adverse event that is thought to be caused by the interventional medication being studied at doses that would normally be used for treatment.

Arm – Any of the groups of participants involved in a clinical study that may or may not be receiving the intervention being investigated.

Blinding – A strategy used in clinical studies where either the participants and/or the investigators don’t know which groups receive or don’t receive the intervention being studied. This is done in an effort to limit bias.

Control Group – A group of participants in the study that do not receive the intervention being investigated but are followed similarly in order to compare to the group receiving treatment. This group may instead receive a placebo or another intervention, which may or may not be used to treat / prevent the condition being targeted.

Controlled Trial – A type of clinical trial that includes a control group.

Double Blinded Trial – A blinded study where both the investigators and participants are not aware of which groups of participants received the intervention being studied.

Eligibility Criteria – The key criteria that applicants must meet in order to be enrolled or allowed to participate in a clinical study.

Enrolment – The act of registering a participant in a clinical trial or the number of participants in a trial.

Exclusion Criteria – The characteristics of a potential participant that would prevent them from being enrolled in a particular clinical study.

Experimental Arm – The group of participants receiving the intervention being studied.

Inclusion Criteria – The characteristics that a potential participant must meet in order to participate in a particular clinical study.

Informed Consent – The goal of the process of informed consent is to protect those volunteers taking part in a clinical study. The investigators must fulfill the following:
(1) They must provide all relevant and important details of the study including potential risks so that the potential participant may make a decision about whether or not to be enrolled.
(2) They must ensure that the information is conveyed appropriately so that the potential subjects understand what is being communicated to them.
(3) Ensure that potential participants recognize that their involvement is completely voluntary and that they may withdraw at any point during the study.